Discussion Question# 1


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Of the four theorists reviewed in this chapter (Freud, Erikson, Piaget, and Vygotsky) which theorist’s ideas about development most closely match your own beliefs about how people develop and why?

Your response is to be 1 to 2 pages long. This means having complete paragraphs. A paragraph is defined as having 5 to 7 sentences. Please use 1 to 2 cited references in your written manuscript. All written work in this class must be in APA style. Include a “Title” and “Reference” Page.

Eric Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Eight Stages:

  • Trust vs. mistrust (0-1) – The infant must have basic needs met in a consistent way in order to feel that the world is a trustworthy place.
  • Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1-2) – Mobile toddlers have newfound freedom they like to exercise and by being allowed to do so, they learn some basic independence.
  • Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5) – Preschoolers like to initiate activities and emphasize doing things “all by myself.”
  • Industry vs. inferiority (6- 11) – School aged children focus on accomplishments and begin making comparisons between themselves and their classmates.
  • Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18) – The adolescent develops a well-defined and positive sense of self in relationship to others.
  • Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood) – In our 20s and 30s we are making some of our first long-term commitments in intimate relationships.
  • Generativity vs. stagnation (middle adulthood) – The 40s through the early 60s we focus on being productive at work and home and are motivated by wanting to feel that we’ve made a contribution to society.
  • Integrity vs. Despair (late adulthood)- We look back on our lives and hope to like what we see-that we have lived well and have a sense of integrity because we lived according to our beliefs.

Chapter 4 – Development of Social Groups – Key Concepts

1. Urie Bronfenbrenner (Ecological Systems Theory) – provides a framework for understanding and studying the many influences on human development.

  • Microsystems – people with whom the child interacts such as parents, peers, and teachers.
  • Mesosystems – are interactions between those surrounding the individual. The relationship between parents and schools.
  • Exosystem – one or more settings that do not involve the developing person as an active participant.
  • Macrosystems – the overarching beliefs and values of the culture within which the developing individual exists.
  • Chronosystem – considers hhow and when major events occur and how the timing of these events can influence a person’s life.

2. Family Systems Theory – family is understood best by conceptualizing it as a complex, dynamic, and changing collection of parts, subsystems and family members.

  • Functionalism – family and its members perform certain functions that facilitate the prosperity and development of society.

3. Conflict Theory – highlights the role of power in family life and contends that the family is often not a haven but rather an arena where power struggles can occur.

Explanation & Answer

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