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n this module, we have considered how behavior in public spaces are governed by unwritten rules and norms. On the discussion board, you drew on the ideas of Jane Jacobs to analyze how the social and built environment shape the patterns of behavior and interaction in a local public space of your choosing. Subsequently, we read two articles that examined how different dimensions of social difference and inequality – gender, race, and class – affect who uses public spaces and how. Bringing these into focus reveals that there many not be one single set of rules governing the use of any given public space. Instead, they suggest that we need to consider how multiple, overlapping social forces shape how different groups access, act, and interact in these spaces.

For this memo, you will revisit the space you analyzed on the discussion board, this time with an eye to how it is shaped by social differences and inequalities of race, class, and/or gender. To do so, you will conduct at least one (1) additional hour of observation in the same site you observed for the discussion board, taking notes on how race, class, or gender appear to shape their use. Then, you will analyze what you observed using ideas from either the article by Kristen Day (“Constructing Masculinity and Women’s Fear”) or the article by Elijah Anderson (“The Cosmopolitan Canopy”). Through this process, you will evaluate how a focus on race, class, or gender differences might lead us to rethink Jane Jacobs’ classic analysis of urban public spaces.

To complete this memo, you will need to take the following steps:

Step 1: Return to your chosen public space to observe for at least one hour (it may take longer to collect enough evidence to use in your memo). Take detailed notes on how different individuals and groups act and interact in this space. The more notes you take, the easier it will be to provide evidence that effectively supports the argument you make in the memo.

As you observe and take notes on this space for the second time, think back to the readings by Elijah Anderson and Kristen Day, and think about what patterns of race, class, and/or gender you can observe in this space. Does a particular racial, gender, or class groups predominate in this space? Why might this be the case? What social “signals” might indicate that the space is “for” a particular group of people? Do people act or react differently when members of another group enter the space? How? Alternatively, if the space is mixed, what signals indicate that it is open to all? Do members of different class, racial, or gender groups use the space differently? How do they interact with (or avoid) each other? Is this a segregated space? Is it a “cosmopolitan canopy”?

You do not have to answer all of these questions. These are just to get you thinking about how to look for patterns. You do, however, have to take detailed notes of what you observe in order to complete this assignment successfully. You will need to provide specific examples from these notes as supporting evidence in the memo.

Step 2: After conducting your observation, you will analyze what you observed using at least two concepts or ideas from the module readings by Kristen Day (“Constructing Masculinity and Women’s Fear”) and/or the article by Elijah Anderson (“The Cosmopolitan Canopy”). Review these readings and decide which concepts, ideas, or insights from Day or Anderson you think can help you to interpret what you observed.

Step 3: After you have decided on the concepts you are going to use, write a memo of between 1,000 and 1,200 words that describes social interactions in your public space and analyzes those interactions using the concepts you have chosen. The memo should be written in well-structured paragraphs using formal, academic prose. It must have the following five components:

a) An original title that gives the reader a clear idea of what you will present in the memo.

b) An introductory paragraph that introduces and describes the public space that you observed ANDestablishes a thesis statement (i.e. the overall sociological argument about interaction in the space that you are going to be making in the memo).

c) Two to four body paragraphs in which you clearly introduce and explainthe two ideas or concepts you are using from the readings; explain why they apply to the public space you observed; and provide descriptive evidence from your observations to illustrate your application of the concepts. [Note: The simplest way to organize this is in two body paragraphs, each of which presents one idea from the reading, and applies it to your observation along with supporting evidence].

d) A concluding paragraph that explores how your own analysis focusing on inequalities of race, class, and/or gender, either fits into, challenges, or changes Jane Jacobs’ classic theory of urban public space.

e) A Reference page that includes full citations for the article(s) that you used. Make sure to use Chicago StyleLinks to an external site. for your citations.

BEFORE YOU SUBMIT: Make sure that you have cited your sources internally. Use the format: (Author Year, Pg#). For example, if you paraphrased or used a direct quote to express an idea from page 113 of the article by Kristen Day, this quote should be followed by (Day 2001, 113).

If you are not quoting directly, but are summarizing a general idea or argument from the article, a citation is still required, but no page number is needed. For example: “Day argued that men and women perceive public space in different ways (Day 2001).”

Also, make sure that all internally cited sources are included in the reference page at the end of the memo. For example, if you cited Kristen Day’s article in your paper, your reference page should include the following full citation:

Day, Kristen. 2001. “Constructing Masculinity and Women’s Fear in Public Space in Irvine, California.” Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 8(2): 109-127.

Proofread carefully before submission! In particular, you should check for two things: a) typos, incorrect punctuation, missing words, spelling and grammatical errors; and b) overall coherence of the memo – Do I have a clear argument? Does my writing make sense? Does the body of the memo match what I said I would show in the introduction?

Formatting Requirements (Follow carefully to avoid losing points):

1) Upload your final memo as a Microsoft Word (.doc or .docx) or PDF file ONLY.

2) Include a header with your Name and Z number.

3) Word count: 1,000-1,200 (no more, no less). This does not include header, title, or references.

4) Double-spaced

Module 3 Discussion – Analyzing an Urban Subculture

In this module, we saw how early sociologists of the Chicago School understood the city as a “mosaic of little worlds,” comprised of multiple neighborhoods, institutions, and subcultures, each with its own social norms and cultural practices. While some of these scholars focused primarily on urban ecology – mapping out how these social worlds were distributed in urban space – others used ethnography to observe, describe, and analyze the norms and practices in specific urban regions and institutions. In the chapters from Paul Cressey’s classic study, The Taxi-Dance Hall, you saw an example of one such ethnography of an institution with a unique subculture. Drawing on long-term observation and interviews with dancers and patrons, Cressey was able to provide a detailed description of life in the dance halls, and explain how this “social world” shaped the values, goals, and practices of their participants.

In this discussion board you will take a similar approach, describing and analyzing the subculture of an urban “social world” in the 21st-century. Your goal is to, first, identify an urban area, institution, or organized group that you think has a distinct subculture. Second, you will explain some of the social norms, practices, and values that makes this social world different from “mainstream” ways of life in our society.

You can use any example you like. It can be a particular neighborhood; an organization or institution; or a collective leisure activity that takes place in a city. Unlike Cressey, you won’t be going out to conduct extensive observations, so I encourage you to reflect on a social world that you are already familiar with. If you cannot think of any, or want to learn about a new one, you also have the option to do some online research about an urban subculture. A good place to start is this YouTube series on SubculturesLinks to an external site. (Note: not all of the subcultures covered are urban. Make sure to choose one that is).

In your initial post, you have two main tasks: 1) Describe the “social world” or subculture for those of us who are not familiar with it. What are the practices, norms, ways of talking, acting, or living that characterize this social world? (provide at least two concrete examples).

2) Explain why you think this particular place, group, or social scene constitutes its own “moral region” that differs from the norms and practices that are dominant in our society. How do you think this subculture shapes the lives, values, and practices of those who inhabit or participate in it?

Suggested Length of Initial Post: Approx. 200-300 words.

Once you post your initial response, you will be able to see your classmates’ posts as well. Write a short reply to at least one of your classmate’s responses. This reply should engage with what you find interesting about the social world they describe, and add something substantive to the discussion. For instance, you might suggest how their description and explanation relates to the readings by Park and Cressey, or the concepts discussed in lecture. Alternatively, you may want to compare and contrast your classmate’s case with the one you wrote about, and offer an explanation as to why they differ.

Suggest Length of Reply: 100-200 words.

****** Need to have access to Taxi Dance Hall and Kristen Day (“Constructing Masculinity and Women’s Fear”) and/or the article by Elijah Anderson (“The Cosmopolitan Canopy”).

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