Multiple Choice.


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1. Alexander invaded the Persian Empire with an army of about 45,000 men in

a. 490 bce

b. 368 bce

c. 334 bce

d. 401 bce

2. Alexander’s death in 323 bce can best be explained

a. from wounds received in battle

b. by excessive drunkenness

c. no one knows for sure

d. poisoned food or wine

3. The government officials and generals who fought over Alexander’s empire after his death were known as

a. jealous members of his family

b. the Diadochoi/Successors

c. Persian Satraps seeking to restore the Persian monarchy

d. mercenary generals in Alexander’s army

4. The blending of Greek traditions with those of the Persian Empire created a new civiliztion called

a. Hellenistic

b. Hellenic

c. Classical

d. Oriental

5. The city of Rome is located on the

a. River Po

b. Adriatic Sea

c. Tiber River

d. Ionian Sea

6. The wealthy landed aristocrats who controlled the Roman Senate during the Republic were the

a. tribunes

b. patricians

c. plebeians

d. questors

7. Most of the planets in the solar system are named after

a. Roman gods

b. Greek gods

c. Greek cities

d, Roman provinces

8. Romans ruled Italy after its conquest by

a. fighting limited wars

b. enslaving entire populations, holding them for ransom

c. hiring mercenaries

d. granting Roman citizenship as “friends of Rome” and allies

9. As a result of its conquests, the Roman Republic

a. adopted Christianity

b. disbanded its navy

c. experienced severe social problems among classes

d. resisted the expansion of Hellenistic civilization

10. The chief purpose of the Roman program of “bread and circuses” was to

a. keep the poor under control

b. establish the Pax Romana

c. create jobs for the unemployed

d. stop slave revolts

11. The most serious defeat ever experienced by the Roman legions during the Punic Wars was the victory of

a. Pyrrhus at Benevento

b. Hannibal at Cannae

c. Philip V at Cynoscephalae

d. Hannibal at Zama

12. Social and economic justice for the plebeians and returning war veterans was advocated

a. Scipio Africanus

b. Sulla

c. Fabius the Delayer

d. Tiberius Gracchus

13. The Roman general that finally defeated the Carthaginians at the Battle of Zama in 202 bce was

a. Flaminius the Liberator

b. Fabius the Delayer

c. Scipio Africanus

d. Hamilcar Barca

14. The government and administration established by Augustus was known as the

a. Principate

b. Tetrarchy

c. Imperium

d. Senatorial

15. The ruler of Rome at the time of the birth of Jesus was

a. Tiberius

b. Nero

c. Constantine

d. Augustus

16. The Roman statesman and orator known as the “father of Latin prose” was

a. Hadrian

b. Nero

c. Cicero

d. Julius Caesar

17. The great economic boom in the Roman world during the first two centuries of the Common Era was chiefly due to

a. Roman military conquests

b. an era of unprecedented peace

c. the building program of the emperors

d. complete religious conformity

18. The most important cause of the fall of the Western Roman Empire was

a. the over-expansion of the Empire

b. the stagnation of the Roman armies

c. barbarian tribes refused treaties of friendship with the Romans

d. constant problems with slave revolts

19. All of the following were outstanding contributions of Roman Civilization except

a. law and engineering

b. government and military organization

c. literature and art

d. music and industrial technology

20. The Roman Empire during the first two centuries ce/ad

a. faced many serious threats from other strong empires

b. was defended on its frontiers by its well-organized armies

c. was unable to clear the Mediterranean Sea of pirates

d. saw a reduction in the number of inhabitants who had citizenship status

21. Which statement about the Punic Wars is false?

a. The wars began with a dispute over Sicily.

b. Rome subdued the northern Etruscan cities.

c. A Roman army suffered defeat by Hannibal,

d. Cato urged Rome to destroy its enemy.

22. Around 500 bce Rome was transformed into an aristocratic Republic after the Romans

a. defeated the invading Persian armies

b. was victorious over Carthage

c. overthrew the Etruscan kings

d. had been attacked by the Egyptian Pharaoh

23. The three successor kingdoms to Alexander’s empire included all of these except

a. Ptolemaic Egypt

b. Hashemite Arabia

c. Seleucid Syria and the Middle East

d. Antigonid Macedonia

24. The Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed in ce/ad 70 by the _____________, and Rome was sacked in 410 by the ______________.

a. Romans, Visigoths

b. Greeks, Huns

c. Christians, Vandals

d. Macedonians, Ostrogoths

25. In the late fourth century (300s), Christians in the Roman Empire

a. were severely persecuted by Emperor Theodosius

b. saw their religion become the one legal religion of the Empire

c. wanted to reserve the art objects of the old Roman gods

d. incorporated Arian views into the official church doctrine

26. Victory in the Punic Wars gave Rome the areas of

a. Egypt and Arabia

b. Sicily and North Africa

c. Macedonia and Syria

d. Latium and Tuscany

27. Constantine became a Christian after the military victory at the Battle of

a. Milan

b. Ravenna

c. Adrianople

d. Milvian Bridge

28. After Rome conquered the Hellenistic Mediterranean world, there was a decrease in

a. the number of slaves

b. Greek works of art and sculpture

c. the number of small farms

d. the commercial production of wine

29. After the Third Jewish War (ca. 130),

a. Judaism largely disappeared from the Mediterranean world

b. mystical experiences replaced the Hebrew Bible in orthodox Judaism

c. the Romans sent Pontius Pilate to rule the area of Judea

d. the Roman government drove all Jews from Jerusalem

30. In the mid-first century bce, Julius Caesar

a. won support in the Roman Senate

b. conquered Gaul

c. crushed large armies of rebelling slaves led by Sparticus

d. married the Egyptian pharaoh, Cleopatra

31. All of these occurred in the third century (200s) ce/ad of the Roman Empire except

a. an increase in the power of the army

b. conflicts in determining who would accede to the office of emperor

c. Pope Gregory defending Rome from the Huns

d. a decline in the population of cities

32. The historian Edward Gibbon wrote that the Roman Empire declined because of

a. climate changes

b. militarism

c. increasing slavery

d. barbarianism and religion

33. In the first century ce/ad religion in the Roman Empire was changing, and

a. Romans were abandoning polytheism in favor of one god

b. Near Eastern mystery religion were mixing with traditional Roman cults

c. Romans were no longer expected to participate in traditional ceremonies

d. Roman emperors refused titles suggesting that they were divine

34. Paul of Tarsus

a. denounced the practice of speaking in tongues

b. wrote profound intellectual theological works

c. deeply admired Greek and Roman classical culture

d. taught that the Christian faith was for both Jews and Christians

35. Alexander conquered all of these areas except

a. Persia

b. the Greek city states

c. the Italian peninsula

d. Egypt

36. Emperor Marcus Aurelius in the second century ce/ad

a. wrote biographies of the gods of Roman mythology

b. wrote booklets of instruction for young soldiers

c. wrote “meditations” which reflected Stoic philosophy

d. worked extensively in the areas of astronomy and astrology

37. Marius brought about what change?

a. He provided that commoners could become Senators.

b. He distributed land of the nobles to the poor.

c. He provided that poor men could volunteer for the army.

d. He established a new agency to find employment for the jobless.

38. The enduring legacy of Octavian/Augustus was

a. his many military victories

b. his defeat of the aristocracy and dissolving the Senate

c. his transforming the Roman state into an empire

d. his leadership in the writing of the Roman constitution

39. By the end of the fourth century (300s), the eastern half of the Roman Empire

a. had fewer and smaller cities than the West

b. was able to survive the Germanic invasions more effectively than the western half

c. had adopted the Latin of Christianity as the major language

d. was dominated by owners of large agricultural plantation more than the western half

40. The Roman paterfamilius

a. had legal power of life or death over his entire family

b. headed the entire household and relatives, except slaves

c. usually ignored Rome’s myths and traditions

d. encouraged the young men of the family to become independent beings

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